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A MULTICULTURAL BRITAIN

A MULTICULTURAL BRITAIN



it's my great pleasure to introduce our main speaker this morning the keynote speaker Trevor Phillips mr. Trevor Phillips Trevor Phillips is a writer and television producer he is co-founder of Weber and Phillips limited a data analyst ik data analytic provider from 25th of March 2015 for a term of three years Trevor will serve as president of the partnership Council of the John Lewis Partnership the first external appointment since 1928 he is also currently Deputy Chair of the steering committee for the national equality standard and chair of the green power Green Park diversity analytics now he is the former chair of the equality and Human Rights Commission and the Commission for racial equality he is now elected chair of the Greater London Authority his most recent work was a third tier in the television film called things we won't say about race that are true which was produced in 2015 March 2015 on channel 4 attracting some 2 million viewers and the extensive prospective press coverage trevor is currently writing a prequel to his successful book wind rush which will appear soon a very great pleasure to invite him to give us his keynote speech for this morning [Applause] well thank you very much indeed for that kind introduction you see I'm I'm fiddling here I've discovered a new piece of technology and you're the first to be favored by my reading a speech from my iPads so if halfway through I just suddenly stopped speaking it's because I've lost my I've lost my words anyway um as I am here I would just like to start there she isn't in room by congratulating both Salas and the new director of the school on her appointment such a distinguished institution needs a great great leader and there are a few who have Valerie Amos is mix of wisdom experience and steel all of which are sorely needed in higher education today I'm very grateful for the invitation this morning I don't do this sort of thing too much these days much as I enjoyed being chair of the quality and human rights commission there are many things in public life I was glad to leave behind for example constantly being confused with Trevor McDonald or David Lammy or Howard from the Halifax or I'm thinking right now being called every year round about this time as Christmas approaches to adjudicate on whether schools should and could celebrate Christmas and whether teachers could say it had something to do with the baby Jesus without offending Muslim parents but it's a privilege to contribute to this discussion and the topic could hardly be more timely I'm delighted that in spite of recent events by the way it is still possible to talk about a difficult topic like this one on a British campus without the meeting being disrupted or subject to a ban because someone has decided to be offended even before they've heard what anyone else has to say today we're focusing on the word integration but we're also I think talking about a deeper more profound question that faces virtually every society in the world in the 21st century the human species will face two overarching questions first how do we live with our planet set of questions around climate change and so on and second how do we live with each other I have no doubt that of the two dilemmas a second is the less tractable and it is also the more urgent we've all seen graphically this summer what is happening Europe's margins and in the Mediterranean and these scenes represent just the start of an immense demographic change in our continent one by the way that Africa has been facing for some time the numbers we face are small by comparison with say those laid out to me by my Chinese equivalent at the HRC some years back I now gather the China is planning to move a quarter of a billion people from the land to the cities over the next decade an unprecedented undertaking the reasons for these great movements of people may be to encourage growth to flee conflict or starvation or simply the product of human restlessness but whatever the cause the demographic challenges ahead are enormous the fact is that these changes are bringing more different kind of people into close proximity or even conflict with more of others of a different background than at any point in human history these migrations aren't just an economic and social issue they bring religious and cultural dilemmas with them too for example today there are 44 million Muslims in Europe by 2050 that number will be 71 million someone in ten of the continents population we will if we're lucky enough still to be around been living in a very different Europe here in the UK the visible minority population will rise from its current 13% to being to between 25 and 35 percent by 2050 some cities Birmingham Leicester for example will be over 50 percent non-white British London already feels like a different country to say Northumbria Northumbria or Kent or Norfolk according to the leading demographer Peter Reese of Leeds University we can expect more than half of Britain's districts to become more like London and the other half to become very different I'd like to say a few words about why this topic holds so much personal as well as a professional significant significant for me I was born in London but our family circumstance was such that my parents thought it better to send me back to Ghana the country that they still called home as a baby so like the school's new director as a child and teenager I was lucky in to enjoy the privilege of living in one of those diverse countries in the world I went to people to school with people as diverse as you could imagine Europeans Asians Arabs Africans Native Americans on the other hand there was no TV no fancy restaurants and I knew about just one major library in a city of 200,000 people as in most Commonwealth nations we had experience of living within a cultural ethnic and racial mix probably not paralleled since the last days of the Roman Imperium my old class list and gonna show names like Ali Ishmael Prasad Chan Ming temperance Singh as well as a conventional European names given to the descendants of slaves Adams Harris Alan Moore and Phillips but is in so much of a Commonwealth behind the racial and religious rainbow there lay a bitter and often violent history of ethnic feuding which still disfigures that small country one of my own classmates and friends man called Donald Rodney in later years saw his brother the writer and a cadet McWhorter Rodney murdered large leaf espousing the cause of non racial politics today Guyana remains one of the poorest nations in the world fatally stricken by racial and ethnic divisions unable to realize its natural resources so I've seen and lived firsthand with the tantalizing possibilities of great diversity and the ghastly consequences of the absence of a generous toleration that period taught me several things about integration first the integration isn't an automatic human response to diversity it's a learned behavior and that learning is inherited or not I also grew to understand that integration is a two-way street the absence of integration isn't always just down to the absence of opportunity it's sometimes this when my parents came here some people really would move out of the street when they moved in but that wasn't always the case the traffic on this highway runs in both directions the absence of integration almost always involves a mix of motivations and some element of unconstrained choice also features whilst we'd like to pretend this isn't true it's hard to explain why for example East African Asian millionaires who could afford to buy homes in any part of the capital choose to congregate in the perfectly pleasant but undistinguished suburbs of Northwest London or why schools in England Wales are more segregated than they need to be topical addressed in a moment third growing up in Guyana I learned that the absence of integration can lead people to believe that outcomes which are in fact entirely unrelated to their race are down to the color of their skins anyone who's read Rob Ford and Matthew Goodwin's stellar book on the UK tribe will know that most youtube voters don't start out believing that they are left behind because of their color they know that they're losing out because of globalization because of lack of education because of their age but as they coalesced into a single grouping the identity that came most naturally was a visible characteristic that most of them are shared being white over time for many newcomers this factor has actually eclipsed the original cause of their disquiet the emergence of this white tribe isn't a British peculiarity we only have to look across the channel we're almost one in three French people support a party the throne national which is arguably anti-immigrant and is certainly by its own declaration anti-islamic its new leader marine lepen currently leads the polls and voting intention for the presidential election of 2017 in Austria where similar parties poling above a fifth of the popular vote in Sweden liberal civilized Sweden the largest party in parliament Sweden Democrats described by The Daily Telegraph as an anti-immigration party with roots in the neo-nazi movement polling above 25% they're similar stories in Denmark Finland in in Holland and in Greece where the anti-immigrant Golden Dawn took 7 percent of the poll in last month's general election and if you want to know what they stand for listen to what one of their MPs ileus Panaji or two guitarists said before they became popular this before they became popular and I'm quoting the Daily Mail here if Golden Dawn gets into Parliament he said it will carry out raids on hospitals and kindergartens and it will throw immigrants and their children out on the street so that Greeks can take their place I think we can say that whatever our problems we would not exchange them for those of our neighbors right now the task of those of us who study integration is to wrestle with the everyday reality of what the philosopher sir isaiah berlin predicted many years ago that restless humanity would one day have to find new ways of living together graciously I've always liked Berlin's formulation living together graciously because the alternative or one of the alternatives the word tolerance has incorrectly and sadly come to imply in English a grudging coexistence between people who barely know each other and who frankly like it that way the original is beef an idea of toleration was a more active proposition a dynamic convergence of cultures and traditions to create a new kind of Englishness today being the date it is by the way it's worth recalling that if we worry about the growth of Islamophobia today it really pales by comparison with the ferocious persecution of Roman Catholics for several hundred years in this country the manifestations which only truly faded in the last century for the avoidance of doubt I do not think we want to emulate all the practices of the first Elizabethans we know about Walsingham's use of torture and the cruelty of the 16th century police state he created I do care about security but I think we need to think pretty hard before we reinvent the Elizabethan security state but even so I do think that we could well follow some aspects of the Elizabethan template without the thumbscrews the idea of toleration does provide a guide to what we might be looking for when we talk about integration a dynamic convergence I'd like to say what I have in mind when I say the word integration I'm not a social scientist by training I'm a chemist so I do tend to think in terms of processes and numbers I know that I don't think of integration as what the former Home Secretary Roy Jenkins called a flattening process of assimilation on the other hand I don't regard a society which simply consists of a series of separate but more or less interlocking communities with different values attitudes and behaviors as integrated instead I think of integration as a process this process of dynamic convergence on a single set of basic values attitudes and behaviors remember this is a two-way street in which everyone is in motion how do we know it when we see it well I tend to go for something that I can measure in this case for me the perfectly integrated society is one in which an individual's life chances preferences and behaviors are randomly related to his or her race or religion sociologists might say a society in which race and religion carry no explanatory power in predicting outcomes a common shallow journalist like me would translate that as meaning simply that when I walk into the room my skin color or the shape of my features should give you no clue as to whether I would be a dustman or a doctor or a bus driver that's a technical definition and I'll return to what it might mean in practice for I sit down but of course we don't live our lives through in through equations I think we need to bear in mind what integration and its opposite mean in everyday sense common sense for most people a note about this I'm not naive race and religions do still render us vulnerable to understa fide discrimination and that is for many the major obstacles to integration but I don't think it's the only cause the real-world challenge now is very different to most people for most people to the challenge of the past 50 years for three reasons first we now understand that each of us is a composite of many things our family history professions gender race and so on for much of my lifetime making your way in society meant suppressing aspects of that complex configuration in order to fit in with prevailing norms but as our societies become more affluent more secure most of us want to live lives that are more in tune with all aspects of our identities we want everyone to know who and what we are we want our bring want to bring our whole selves to work and that includes our faith in essence well-off Society are enjoying more freedoms accommodating more public differentiations of identity it's all out there both to celebrate and to irritate second individual attitudes are so much more tolerant and so much less president pressure prejudiced we are simply less likely to face overt and deliberate acts of individual bigotry twenty years ago more than a quarter of us would express unease about a black or Asian boss or neighbor usually by saying that we ourselves had no worries but we thought there might be problems for our fellow workers or other neighbors or relatives who are not so open-minded today you struggle to find one in ten people admitting to these attitudes and amongst people under 30 I suspect that the very questions were used in the 1980s would seem incomprehensible third because of technical advances in data gathering and monitoring we now now know a great deal more about the systemic effect of belonging to an identity category a religion a race gender than we used to and we know that some of the obstacles to integration aren't invented or purely the result of unequal treatment they are the result of a gap between the way that some of our institutions work often and the way that some of our citizens want to live and neither is necessarily at fault we know that some differences and some disadvantages are inherent and generally speaking in extra inextricably associated with our race and gender and so forth they're not as I say simply systems of only symptoms of unequal treatment for example the Ipsos MORI study of GP patient opinion a sample of over a hundred thousand individuals in England and Wales shows that British Muslims corrected for class and geography are 40 percent less likely to rate their GPS as very good than the average person of course the GPS are pretty diverse but this is clearly a cultural issue which we don't yet understand how do we address it well we can take some clues from a study by my colleague professor Richard Weber conducted some years ago for Tahoma primary care trusts between 2000 to 2004 use of act and emergency in Tower Hamlets doubled local hospitals struggled to meet the government's for an hour waiting target analysis of two hundred thousand attendance records to show that the over users were disproportionately Bangladeshi the first assumption was that this was a kind of immigrant problem older people who didn't really understand the system but analysis showed that the other users were a group were in fact a group with age spikes at 0 to 5 and 20 to 29 in fact young families with british-born parents further focus groups showed that when muhammad or asthma fell off the slide unlike their classmates the decision to take the children to A&E was a family decision and older Bangladeshis in the family believed that GPS were less professional they weren't real doctors unless they wore wore white coats they and they gave you a battery of intrusive tests how to solve that well targeted educational campaigns reduced the overuse in target hospitals within a year in the target hospitals there was a 6.4 percent total decline in a year compared to increases of 3.6 percent and 2.6 percent in neighboring hospitals GP attendance figures went up and crucially savings were significant between 55 and hundred pounds per visit to A&E and for our waiting target were met this problem was solved through marketing and campaigning it was a clear example of the way that integration can be brought about by action to take another current issue we know that we urgently need to find ways of addressing diversity in the police as usual politicians and activists have reached for the law the evidence is that we can achieve change faster with less confrontational methods a man Avon and Somerset police worried about the poor scores of minority candidates in one of their online recruitment tests asked the behavioral insight unit the so called nudge unit at number 10 to help them understand what was going on while the researchers came up with a pretty simple plan they adjusted the tone of a reminder email that went to all candidates making it friendlier in tone this may seem irrelevant but actually this no-cost intervention had the effect of increasing the pass rate among ethnic minorities by 50% 50% and more importantly it eliminated the gap in pulse rates between whites and non-whites perfect integration I could give you a range of other examples but time doesn't allow the essential point is that we're now learning the problems of integration that we thought had to be solved by legal or regulatory means maybe better addressed by other approaches ultimately the puzzle here is how we change human behavior without state or legal compulsion that is the question that confronts all of us who worry about the real on the ground everyday practice of integration and I want to scratch out briefly three areas that I think we should be exploring to address that problem first culture and manners and by the way this is extremely subtle and difficult the signals about a integration can be extremely hard to spot especially in the territory where there is no right or wrong for example today what are our social rules about when and whether to wear this the red poppy I'm looking around the room there are a few people wearing them in this room this afternoon and I'm going to be going to Milton Keynes and I expect the reverse will be true nobody here is wrong nobody there is wrong but it's very different does it matter well I think it probably and we need to understand why and how and let me at be absolutely clear I'm not saying that I think everybody in this room is doing something wrong by not wearing a poppy that's not my point at all my point is it's different here should we be thinking about why and whether we need to change up maybe we need to change the practice in Milton Keynes but the point here is how do we change people's reflexes how do we influence the way we behave speak and relate to each other well historically in this country we've tended to rely on a class-based set of rules in the past they didn't need to be written down or even properly articulated we just tried very hard to copy the middle classes for example for newcomers to participate fully in a society they do have to know what the rules of society actually are unfortunately in Britain we tend to turn those rules into a kind of cryptic crossword puzzle a couple of years ago I was invited to what was described as a small informal supper at a stately Hut very nice small actually meant 24 people not quite my family's definition and informal meant an invitation on a stiff card with the words at the bottom no dress code well this is not a problem if you're a bloke you wear a suit and no tie or a woman it's more complicated obviously you don't wear a tiara but pearls no pearls summer frock business suit trousers skirt well my wife made me ring up some people who had been to this place before get some steer on the rules their guidance was uniformly vague and useless of course in the end she wore an outfit in which she felt comfortable of course being a woman of taste and discernment she got that right but the point of the stories it taught me a lesson about our country when someone says no dress code what it really means is that if you don't already know what the code is are you sure you really belong here in future I think we may need to take a leaf out of the French book they go too far on prescription but at least you know what you're doing so to give integration any chance at all we're going to have to be more explicit about our rules of behavior and that means deciding what those rules are one place where this will be especially difficult is in relation to the question of what causes offense there are many people who think we should be more active and policing what people say there are some who think we should be more sensitive to others feelings of hurt when we make fun of Jesus or the Prophet Muhammad I disagree we cannot and should not censor speech one reason is that this path is always oppressive and usually end up making the censor look foolish if we did give in to that temptation we would be no better than the old Soviet Union or the present China offense is a part of the reality of a diverse society it need not may make us unequal so there are issues of cultural manners which can't be dealt with by statute but which are vital to resolve in an integrated society I want to turn finally to the hardest nut of all apparently inherent cultural and ethnic preferences remember my mathematical definition of integration a society in which life chances outcomes and preferences are random with respect to race and religion the evidence is emerging that though we may make progress toward reducing with predictability associated with race and religion we may near never get anywhere near that definition for real reasons there are intrinsic differences between identity groups and this is a sensitive issue which most public figures would prefer to avoid but which I believe in time we have to solve let me give you a couple of examples of why I think we find it hard to discuss these differences and I'll focus on the topic that matters to everyone educational success or otherwise it's clear that in this country standard of achievement at 16 GCSE level are rising for a decade or more we've to monitor the numbers we learned that girls generally do better than boys we've learned that different ethnic groups before differently but they can improve for example African Caribbean boys who used trail that pack are catching up however the data confront us with one extremely uncomfortable and really consistent finding which by the way is echoed internationally in most ethnic groups there is a 20% gap between performance of the poor and the average student by which I mean socially economically poor there is only one exception to this rule children of Chinese heritage where the poor not poor gap is just in fact it's slightly less on new results than 2% and where actually it doesn't matter much because poor Chinese children 90% of whom get five good GCSEs beat the pants off every other demographic irrespective of class the hard question here is what do they have that the rest of us don't and if we can copy it should we or should we just regard it as a kind of unjust inequality which of course should lead to some form of reverse discrimination I like to this let's look at the effective school choice today parents have greater choice over the schools with their children attending England Wales and they used to that's a good thing but work from British Bristol universities shown that over the past decade parents preferences for schools with more children who are similar to their own in various ways means that most schools are more ethnically segregated than the communities they sit in let me emphasize these people are not bigots it is not white flight it applies to minorities too but it does mean and I'll finish the moment our schools are changing in character in some cities most minority children sit in classes where there are hardly any children who do not share them ethnicity according to the mapping integration project that demos my colleague David Goodheart is up next between 2008 and 2013 there was a 31% increase in number of ethnic minority children starting school in England 61% of those minority children began their education in schools where ethnic minorities are the majority of the student body and in London that figure is 90% ultimately we cannot and should not restrict choice so how do we encourage a shared future I would say the single most important step right now is simply to begin to have the courage to acknowledge these differences something that we fail to do for example in London where all of the evidence tells us that the extraordinary improvement in London schools is down to the performance of high achieving ethnic minority groups but government ministers and actually most academics simply refused to acknowledge or even to investigate this but frankly if we were to try to work out whether the success of some group what what causes success of some groups Bangladeshi girls for example we might be able to find ways of dealing with a chronic failure of others white or Pakistani boys being key demographics for failure that is the virtue of integration okay well my time is up I wish you success with your debates today tomorrow the word academic has come to mean regrettably abstract and irrelevant to everyday life actually this confident conference is an example of exactly the opposite rigorous analysis of an intensely relevant contemporary issue I might point as an example to the brilliant work carried out by Professor miles Houston at Oxford which was reported on this two-day program this morning on contact of theory as the sort of thing we need to have at our fingertips as policymakers to work out how to deal with the future that is coming down the road this is why societies need universities like this one and the work that you do and I look forward to seeing your outcomes thank you you [Applause] you

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